Research Supports Chiropractic

Research proving Chiropractic is extremely safe and effective.

Chiropractic philosophy is based upon the fact, and research supports that every single cell, tissue, and organ is controlled by the nervous system. We are all born with an innate healing ability (innate wisdom) which is constantly at work to maintain our bodies in a state of health and to heal us when we are in a state of dis-ease.

The brain, the spinal cord and the peripheral nerves that exit the spine make up the nervous system. They are the body's super information highway. Any disruption of the communication between the brain and the body or innate wisdom from spinal misalignment (vertebral subluxations causing nerve interference) can result in a state of dis-ease or symptoms.

Abnormal Spinal Function like tooth decay, a subluxation may not be painful at first. Only a chiropractic doctor has the educational background, has a state license and is qualified to detect and remove or reduce vertebral subluxations.  Looking for the cause of the problem not covering symptoms.

A chiropractic doctor detects and corrects these spinal misalignments (vertebral subluxation causing nerve interference), restoring normal nerve impulses to the body allowing the body's own innate healing capabilities to function optimally.

The following is a sample of the many hundreds of scientific peer-reviewed and magazine articles showing the effectiveness of chiropractors through the top rated world class research facilities or critical published observation.

Dr. Phil Show March 14, 2012 regarding Chiropractic YouTube video Amazing experiences on chiropractic.

For Discussion only

Chiropractic Treatment is rated #1 by Consumers Report in May 2009 after more than 14,000 subscribers were surveyed Chiropractic Rated #1

A Good Reason to See a Chiropractor First, Consumer Perspectives: Chiropractic vs. Traditional Medical Care, Chiropractic Care is Clinically Appropriate and Cost-Effective and Growing Consumer Demand for Chiropractic Care. Chiropractic profession policy statement on national healthcare reform A good reason to see a chiropractor first

Chiropractic safety comparison with over the counter medication reported spinal manipulation was several hundred times safer than prescription NSAIDS and was just as efficacious for the treatment of spinal pain." Chiropractic is several hundred times safer than over-the-counter non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS)

H.R. 1017 requires the VA to have doctors of chiropractic on staff at no fewer than 75 major VA medical centers before the end of 2011 and for all major VA medical centers to have a doctor of chiropractic on staff before the end of 2013. There are nearly 160 VA treatment facilities nationwide. Currently, the VA provides chiropractic care at 32 treatment facilities across the country. Chiropractic in the Military

Chiropractic patients are less likely to be hospitalized, less likely to have used a nursing home, more likely to report a better health status, more likely to exercise vigorously, and more likely to be mobile in the community. In addition, they were less likely to use prescription drugs according to researcher Ian D. Coulter, PhD. Study shows geriatric Chiropractic patients are more active and independent lifestyle

Buzz McClain, reports research states, "Patients who turned first to chiropractors, and other alternative care practitioners, for treatment were hospitalized less and had surgery 60 percent less often and spent 85 percent less on medication." Mainstream Makes Adjustments - Washington Post

Spinal manipulation provided better short and long-term functional improvement, and more pain relief in the follow-up when compare to other treatments say Francesca Cecchi et al, Scientific Institute, Florence and Department of Medical and Surgical Critical Care, University of Florence, Italy in 2010 Research shows manipulation provides better short and long-term functional improvement

Web site article regarding decreasing lower back pain and decreasing labor time by 25% during pregnancy utilizing chiropractic care. The data collected showed almost 25% reduction from the accepted average labor times in first time mothers who had regular chiropractic care during pregnancy, and 33% reduction from the norm in woman who had previously given birth. Chiropractic adjustments are beneficial during pregnancy

April 2011 WFC 2011 Award Winning Research article shows elite judo athletes' grip strength increases with chiropractic adjustments. This article also has references showing chiropractic adjustments generates neuromuscular manipulation reflex responses in a surface electromyography in patients with low back pain, increases quadricepts' strength after adjustments of the ipsilateral sacroiliac joint and causes temporary excitatiory inhibition of lumbar and cervical motorneurons.

January 4, 2012 Article by the Annals of Internal Medicine researching which is the most effective between: spinal manipulation by a chiropractic doctor, medication, or home exercise with advice for neck pain. Neck Pain: Chiropractors, Exercise Better Than Medication, Study Says - ABC News ( Conclusion: spinal manipulation therapy by chiropractic doctors has statistically significant advantage over medication. Spinal manipulative therapy was more effective than medication in both short and long term. Home exercise with advice had superior results to medication as welll. In our office, we give both adjustments and exercises.

ASBE Seminar References for discussion only

1 Richard H. Daffner, MD. HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL: Department of radiology and continuing education, Corners of the Vertebral Body -"Spinous processes should not vary by more than 2 mm from one level to the next" ORTHOPEDIC RADIOLOGY 1991, March 25- 27 page 64

2 Aragona, Ronald J. D.C., Ph.D., F.A.S.B.E.: American Academy of Clinical Applied Spinal Biomechanical Engineering Board Certified Examinations: questions and Answers. Manchester, NH 1988

3 Aragona, Ronald J. D.C., Ph.D., F.A.S.B.E.: Vol I A.S.B.E. Principles and Practice The Science of Spinal Remodeling. Manchester, NH 1987

4 White and Panjabi: Clinical Biomechanics of the Spine. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1990

5 Kapandji IA: The Physiology of the Joints Vol #3. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1978

6 Gregory Plaugher, D.C.: Text Book of Clinical Chiropractic: a specific biomechanical approach. Williams & Wilkins 1993

7 Hadley L.A.: Anatomicoroentgenographic Studies of the Spine. Springfield: Charles C Thomas, 1964

8 Yochum T., D.C., D.A.C.B.R.: Essentials of Skeletal Radiology. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1987

9 Grieve GP.: Common Vertebral Joints Problems. New York: Churchill and Livingstone, 1981

10 Gracovetski S, Ph.D.: The Spinal Engine. Springer-Verlag./Wein 1988

11 Kirkaldy-Willis WH., MD.: Managing Lower Back Pain. New York: Churchill and Livingstone, 1983

12 Cox JM., D.A.C.B.O.: Low Back Pain Mechanism, Diagnosis and Treatment. 4th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins 1985

13 Palmer, DD.: The Science, Art, and Philosophy of Chiropractic. Portland, Oregon: Portland Printing House 1910 Intersegmental adjusting and intersegmental range of motion

14 Cyriax J., MD.: Textbook of Orthopedic Medicine. 11 ed. Bailliere and Tindall,, 1984

15 Dvorak J, Dvorak V: Manual Medicine: Diagnostics. New York: Thieme-Stratton Inc. 1984

16 Foreman SM., D.C., D.A.C.B.O., Croft AC., D.C., D.A.C.B.O.: Whiplash Injuries: The Cervical Acceleration/Deceleration Syndrome. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins 1987

17 Greenman, DO.: Principles of Manual Medicine. Williams & Wilkins 1989

18 Plaugher, D.C.: Specific Contact Short Lever Arm Articular Procedures: Advances in the Gonstead Technique

19 Woo, Ph.D.: Injury and Repair of the Musculoskeletal Soft Tissues. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons 1987

20 Cohen, Diegelmann, Lindblad: Wound Healing, Biochemical and Clinical Aspects. W.B. Saunders Company 1992

21 Faye and Schafer, Motion Palpation and Chiropractic Technique 1989 pg. 73

22 Haldeman Howard and Rowe, Principles and Practice of Chiropractic pg. 364, 397

23 Christensen, D.C., Clinical Chiropractic Biomechanics pg. 20

24 Dupis, Yong-Hing, Cassidy, D.C., Radiological Diagnosis of Degenerative Lumbar Spinal Instability, SPINE Vol 10 Number 3 1985 262-273

25 Aragona, R. Class 6 X-ray Safety

26 Weitz, MD., The Lateral Bending Sign SPINE Vol 6 Number 4 July/Aug. 1981

27 Vahl, BS., MS. D.C., Digest of Chiropractic Economics January/February 1987

28 Duncan, MD. and Hoen. MD., Surgery 1942 pg. 263

29 Kent and Gentempo, The Documentary Basis for Diagnostic Imaging Procedures in the Subluxated-Based Chiropractic Practice ICA 1992 page 9 and 60

30 Speiser, MS., D.C., F.A.S.B.E., Ronald J. Aragona, D.C., Ph.D., F.A.S.B.E., Heffernan, D.C., F.A.S.B.E., ICA International Review of Chiropractic Nov./Dec. 1989 pg. 59

31 Jan Jirout, MD., Sc.D., Roentgen Studies of the Dynamics of the Cervical Spine 1985 pg. 56

32 Felding, MD., The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, Normal and Selected Abnormal Motion of the Cervical Spine from the Second Cervical Vertebra and the Seventh Cervical Vertebrae Based on Cineroentgenography. 1964 pg. 1779

33 William C. Meeker, D.C., The Role of Functional Radiographs of the Lumbar Spine.

34 Carrick, D.C., Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics Vol 6 Number 3 1983 page 129-137

35 Schalimtzek, Functional Roentgen Examination of Degenerated and Normal Intervertebral Disks of the Lumbar Spine page 300 Department of Radiology and Psychiatry, The Municipal Hospital Copenhagen, Denmark 1954. Schalimtzek Roentgenological Examination of the Function of the Lumbar Spine 1958 Denmark

36 Richard Stonebrink, D.C., Evaluation and Manipulative management of Common Musculo-skeletal Disorders 1990 pg. 63

37 Proceedings of the 7th annual Conference on Research and Education June 1992 pg. 168

38 Dvorak, M.D., Panjabi, Ph.D., Functional Radiographic Diagnosis of the Lumbar Spine: flexion-extension and lateral bending SPINE Vol 16 number 5 1991 pg. 562

39 Sherman, R., Bauer, FG., A-ray, X-pertise -- from A to X. Fort Worth, PFCRF 1982, Maurer, EL.

40 Shanks, P, Do We Really Need to Take X-rays?. The Digest of Chiropractic Economics. Nov./Dec. 1993: 76.

41 Peet, Palmer. Should Children Be X-rayed For Vertebral Subluxation Analysis?. Today's Chiropractic. July/Aug. 1993:72-74

42 Kettner, D.C. D.A.C.B.R., Guebert, D.C, D.A.C.B.R., Yochum, D.C., D.A.C.B.R., F.C.C.F.(c), FICC, APPLIED DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING, Sept./Oct. 1989 Vol. 1, Number 5. p 37-47.

43 Lantz, Ph.D., D.C., THE VERTEBRAL SUBLUXATION COMPLEX. ICA International Review of Chiropractic Sept./Oct. 1989 37-61

44 John Taylor, D.C., Full Spine Radiography: A review of Literature. Proceedings of the 7th annual Conference on Research and Education: 1992 190-216

45 Nordenson, I. Beckman, G Beckman, L. Lemperg, R., Chromosomal aberrations in children exposed to diagnostic x-rays.

46 Wall, B.F., Rae, S., Darby, SC., Kendall, GM., A Reappraisal of the genetic consequences of diagnostic radiology in Great Britain, British Journal of Radiology 1981; 54: 719-730

47 Twibble, Postgraduate Radiology, October 1984 Vol. 4 398

48 Kent, Pediatric Back Pain: Imaging Considerations, ICA International Review of Chiropractic, Nov./Dec. 1991 59-63

49 James B. Naidich, M.D., Thomas P. Naidich, M.D. et. al., The Widening Interspinous Distance: A Useful Sign of Anterior Cervical Dislocation in the Spinal Frontal Projection, Neuroradiology Vol 123 April 1977 113-116

50 Van Schiak, M.D., Isolated Spinous Process Deviation: A Pitfall in the Interpretation of AP Radiographs of the Lumbar Spine, SPINE, Vol 14 Number 9 1989, 970-976

51 R. Gunzberg, M.D., Radiographic Interpretation of Lumbar Vertebral Rotation, SPINE Vol 16 Number 16 1991, 660-664

52 Tanz, M.D. Motion of the Lumbar Spine: A Roentgenologic Study, Mt. Sinai Hospital, New York March 1953 Vol 69, No 3 399-412

53 Pope, Ph.D., et. al, Experimental Measurements of Vertebral Motion Under Load, Orthopedic Clinics of North America Vol. 8 No. 1 January 1977

54 Kirkaldy-Willis and Farfan, Instability of the Lumbar Spine, Clinical Orthopaedic and Related Research, Number 165 May 1982 110-116

55 Stokes, Ph.D. et. all. Assessment of Patients with Low-Back pain by Biplanar Radiographic Measurement of Intervertebral Motion, SPINE Volume 6 Number 3 May/June 1981 233-240

56 Peterson et. al, Chiropractic Radiography, Chiropractic Management of Spine-Related Disorders pg. 90-110

57 Department of Health Services: Radiologic Health Section, Syllabus on Diagnostic X-ray Radiation Protection for Certified X-ray Supervisors and Operators, January 1982

58 Bronfort, D.C., Jochumsen, D.C., The Functional Radiographic Examination of Patients with Low-Back Pain: A Study of Different Forms of Variations, Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics Volume 7 Number 2 June 1984 89-93

59 Paul and Juhl, Essentials of Roentgen Interpretation 9-10

60 Maurer, D.C. Biological Effects of Diagnostic X-ray Exposure: An Up date of Principles, Revised Maximum Permissible Dose Recommendations and New Patient Protection Legislation AJCM Volume 1, Number 3 - September 1988

61 Stephen Rowe, D.C. Text Book of Clinical Chiropractic: a specific biomechanical approach. Williams & Wilkins 1993

62 Hildebrant, D.C. Chiropractic Spinography and Posture Roentgenology Part II: Clinical Basis Journal of Manipulative a Physiologic Therapeutics Volume 4 Number 4 December 1981 191-201

63 Frank, Kuntz, A Simple Method of Protecting the Breasts During Upright Lateral Radiography for Spine Deformities, Radiologic Technology Volume 55/Number 1 532-535

64 Nelson, D.C., The APFS X-ray View: A Discussion of Some Critical Factors in its Production, The ACA Journal of Chiropractic/ March 1980 Vol 14, S -39-41

65 Gyll, Gonadal Protection for the Pediatric Patient, Radiography January/February 1988 Vol 54 No 613 9-10

66 Cassidy, D.C. Roentgenological Examination of the Functional Mechanics of the Lumbar Spine in Lateral Flexion, Journal of the CCA July 1976 1316

67 Howe, Yochum, X-ray, Pregnancy and Therapeutic Abortion: A Current Perspective ACA Journal of Chiropractic April 1985 Vol 19 number 4 76-90

68 Hardman, Henderson, Comparative Dosimetric Radiographic Evaluation, The Journal of the CCA Volume 25 Number 4 December 1981 141-145

69 Dimnet, Fischer, Gonon, Carret, Radiographic Studies of Lateral Flexion in the Lumbar Spine, Journal Biomechanics, 1978 Vol 11 143-150

70. Frymoyer, Selby, Segmental Instability: Rational for Treatment, SPINE Volume 10 Number 3 1985 280-286

71. Lind, Sihlbom, Nordwall, Malchau, Normal Range of Motion of the Cervical Spine, Archives Physical Medicine Rehabilitation Vol 70, September 1989 692-695

72. Jirout, The Effect of Mobilization of the Segmental Blockade on the Sagittal Component of the Reaction on Lateroflexion of the Cervical Spine, Neuroradiology Vol 3 210-215 1972

73. Field, Buehler, Improvements in Chiropractic Full Spine Radiography, Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, Volume 4 Number 1 March 1981 21-25

74. Merkin, Sportelli, The Effects of Two New Compensating Filters on Patient Exposure in Chiropractic Full Spine Radiography, Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutic, Volume 5 Number 1 March 1982 25-29

75. Gatterman, Filtration in Chiropractic, ICA International Review of Chiropractic Winter 1985 62-63

76. Schram, Hosek, Silverman, Spinographic Positioning Errors in Gonstead Pelvic X-ray Analysis, Journal of Manipulative and Physiologic Therapeutic, Volume 4 Number 4 December 1981 179-181

77. Lovett, M.D., A Contribution to the Study of the Mechanics of the Spine, Anatomical Laboratory, Harvard Medical School May 19, 1903

78. Jirout, Motility of the Cervical Vertebrae in Lateral Flexion of the Head and Neck, Roentgen Department of the Neurologic Clinic Prague Czechoslovakia 919-927

79. Becker, R.T., Adjustable Compensation Filters for Pediatric 72-inch Spine Radiography, Radiologic Technology Vol 51 Number 1 1979 11-16

80 Gray, Stears, Frank, Shaped, Lead-Loaded Acrylic Filters for Patient Exposure education and Image-quality Improvement, Mayo Clinic 1982 825-828

81 Marugg, Streule, Hedtler, Berchtold, Additive Filtering, The British Journal of Radiology, October 1990 800-801

82 Andrews, Earth Imaging, The American Chiropractor, November 1987 34

83 Pearcy Tibrewal, Axial Rotation and Lateral Bending in the Normal Lumbar Spine Measured by Three-Dimensional Radiography, SPINE Volume 9 Number 6 1984 582-587

84 Pope, Wilder, Stokes, Frymoyer. Biomechanical Testing as an Aid to Decision Making in Low-Back Pain Patients, SPINE Volume 4 Number 2 March/April 1979 135-140

85 Thompson, Augstine Comparative analysis of 1200 speed screen cassette vs. 400 speed

86 Buehler, Hrejsa, Application of Lead-Acrylic Compensation Filters in Chiropractic Full Spine Radiography: a Technical Report, Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, Volume 8 Number 3 September 1985

87 Dvorak, Panjabi, Novotny, Chang, Grob, Clinical Validation of Functional Flexion-Extension Roentgenograms of the Lumbar Spine, SPINE Volume 16 Number 8 1991 943-950

88 Vernon, D.C., Static and Dynamic Roentgenography in the Diagnosis of Degenerative Disc Disease: A Review and Comparative Assessment, Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics Volume 5 Number 4 December 1982

89 Cooper, Jayson, Radiographic Demonstration of Paraspinal Muscle Wasting in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain, British Journal of Rheumatology Volume 31 1992 389-394

90 Plamondon, Gagnon, Maurais, Application of a Steroradiographic Method for the Study of Intervertebral Motion, SPINE Volume 13 Number 9 1988 1027-1032

91 White, Southwick, Panjabi, Clinical Instability in the Lower Cervical Spine; A Review of Past and Current Concepts, SPINE Volume 1 Number 1 March 1976 15-27

92 HEW Publication, A Practitioner's Guide to the Diagnostic X-ray Equipment Standard, Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, Volume 1 Number 4 December 1978 260-264

93 Shrimpton, Jones, Wall, The Influence of Tube Filtration and Potential on Patient Dose During X-ray Examinations, Phys Med Biol Vol 33 No. 10 1988 1205-1212

94 Kohn, Goovh, Keller, Filters for Radiation Reduction: A Comparison, Medical Physics, Mercy Hospital, Scranton, PA 1987 255-257

95 Gianturco, A Roentgen Analysis of the Motion of the Lower Lumbar Vertebrae in Normal Individuals and in Patient with Low Back Pain, Medical Corps, Army of the United States September 1944 Vol 52, No 3 261-268

96 Butler, Thomas, Thompson, Wollerton, Rachlin, Simple Methods to Reduce Patient Exposure During Scoliosis Radiography, Radiologic Technology, Volume 57 Number 5 411-417

97 Reuter, Conway, McCrohan, Sueiman, Average Radiation Exposure Values for Three Diagnostic Radiographic Examinations, Radiology Volume 177 Number 3 341-346

98 Stokes, Medlicott, Wilder, Measurement of Movement in Painful Intervertebral Joints, Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, September 1980 18, 694-700

99 Jirout, Patterns of Changes in the Cervical Spine on Lateral flexion, Neuroradiology, Springer-Verlag 2 164-166 1971

100 Ho, Testing Intervertebral Joint Movement, Journal American Osteopathic Association, Vol 61, April 1962

101 Boden, Weisel, Lumbosacral Segmental Motion in Normal Individuals, SPINE Volume 15 Number 6 1990 571-576

102 Frymoyer, Pope, Segmental Instability, Clinical Journal of Pain, Seminars in Spine Surgery, Vol 3, No. 2 June 1991 109-118

103 Mirkovic, Grafin, Segmental Spinal Instability as Related to Degenerative Disc, Clinical Journal of Pain, Seminars in Spine Surgery, Vol 3, No. 2 June 1991 119-123

104 Oxland, Panjabi, Southern, Duranceau,An Anatomic Basis for Spinal Instability: A Porcine Trauma Model, Journal of Orthopaedic Research 1991 9:462

105 Henderson, Significance of Vertebral Dyskinesia in Relation to the Cervical Syndrome, Journal of Manipulative and physiological Therapeutics Volume 2 Number 1 March 1979 43-53

106 Frymoyer, Wilder and Pope, The Mechanical and Kinematic Analysis of the Lumbar Spine in Normal Living Human Subjects in Vivo, Journal of Biomechanics Vol 12 1979 165-172

107 C.H. Suh, The Fundamentals of Computer Aided X-ray Analysis of the Spine, Journal of Biomechanics 1974 Vol 7 161-169

108 Brown, Burstin, Nash and Schock, Spinal Analysis Using a Three-Dimensional Radiographic Technique, Journal of Biomechanics 1976, Vol 9 355-365

109 Fickel, D.C., Ph.D., Organ - Specific Dosimetry in Spinal Radiography: An Analysis of Genetic and Somatic Effects, Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, Vol 11 Number 1 February 1988 3-9

110 Carrick, D.C. Treatment of Pathomechanics of the Lumbar Spine by Manipulation, Journal of Manipulative and Physiologic Therapeutics, Vol 4 Number 4 December 1981 173-177

111 Vernon, D.C., Static and Dynamic Roentgenography in the Diagnosis of Degenerative Disc Disease: A Review and Comparative Assessment, Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics Vol 5 Number 4 December 1982 163-169

112 Brunarski, D.C., Chiropractic Biomechanical Evaluations: Validity in Myofascial Low Back Pain, Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, Vol 5 Number 4 December 1982 155-161

113 Grice, D.C., Radiographic, Biomechanical and Clinical Factors in Lumbar Lateral Flexion: part I, Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, Vol 2 Number 1 March 1979 26-34

114 Buehler, Hrejha, Application of Lead-Acrylic Compensating Filters in Chiropractic Full Spine Radiography: A Technical Report, Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, Vol 8 Number 3 September 1985 175-180

115 Bronfort, Jochumsen, The functional Radiographic Examination of Patients with Low-Back pain: A study of Different Forms of Variations. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, Volume 7 Number 2 June 1984 89-97

116 Carrick, Cervical Radiculopathy: The Diagnosis and Treatment of Pathomechanics in the Cervical Spine, Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics Volume 6 Number 3 September 1983 129-137

117 Pearcy, Tibrewal, Axial Rotation and Lateral Bending in the Normal Lumbar Spine Measured by Three-Dimensional Radiography, SPINE Volume 9 Number 6 1984 582-587

118 Stokes, Wilder, Frymoyer, Pope, Assessment of Patients With Low-Back Pain By Biplanar Radiographic Measurement of Intervertebral Motion, SPINE Volume 6 Number 3 May/June 1981 233-240

119 Stokes, Frymoyer, Segmental Motion and Instability, SPINE Volume 12 Number 7 1987 688-691

120 Wilder, Seligson, Frymoyer, Pope, Objective Measurement of L4-5 Instability, SPINE Volume 5 Number 1 Jan/Feb. 1980

121 Tibrewal, Pearcy, Portek, Frcap. Spivey, Chir, A Prospective Study of Lumbar Spinal Movements Before and After Disectomy Using Biplanar Radiography, SPINE Volume 10, Number 5 1985, 455-460

122 Andersson, The Biomechanics of the Posterior Elements, SPINE Volume 8 Number 3 1983 326

123 Pope, Panjabi, Biomechanical Definitions of Spinal Instability, SPINE Volume 10 Number 3 1985 255-256

124 Frymoyer, Selby, Segmental Instability: Rational for Treatment SPINE Volume 10 Number 3 1985 280-286

125 Nachemson, Lumbar Instability: A Critical Update and Symposium Summary SPINE Volume 10 Number 3 1985 290-291

126 Kohn, Gooch, Keller, Filters for Radiation Reduction: A Comparison Radiology Volume 167 Number 1 256-257

127 Wagner Adsorbed Dose in Imaging: Why Measure It, Radiology Volume 178 622-623

128 Sinclair, Effects of Low-Level Radiation and Comparative Risk, Radiology 138:1-9 January 1981

129 White, Panjabi, Basic Kinematics of the Human Spine, SPINE Volume 3 Number 1 March 1978 12-19

130 Ogston, King, Gertzbien, Tile, Kapasouri, Rubenstein, Centrode in the Lumbar Spine: Baseline Studies in Normal Subjects, SPINE Volume 11 Number 6 1986 591-595

131 Stokes, Bigalow, Moreland, Measurement of Axial Rotation of Vertebrae in Scoliosis, SPINE Volume 11, Number 3 1986 214-218

132 Guebert, Yochum, Ultra Fast radiographic Screen /Film Systems Reduce Patient Exposure and Motion Problems, Dynamic Chiropractic, April 8, 1994 Volume 12 Number 1, 9-32

133 Sherman, Chiropractic Journal of the CCA Volume 30 Number 1 March 1986, 33-35

134 Kirkaldy-Willis, Farfan, Instability of the Lumbar Spine, Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research, Number 165 May 1982 110-123

135 Speiser, Aragona, Heffernan, The Application of Therapeutic Exercises Based Upon Lateral Flexion Roentgenography to Restore Biomechanical Function in the Lumbar Spine, Chiropractic Research Journal Volume 1 Number 4

136. Kalmar, M.D. et al, Low Dose Scoliosis Examinations SPINE Vol 19 Number 7 1994 pg. 818-823

137 Hellstrom Reduction of Radiation Dose in Radiologic Examination of Patients with Scoliosis Lanex, SPINE Vol 8 Number 1983 pg. 28-30

138 Nash et al, Risks of Exposure to X-rays in Patients Undergoing Long-Term Treatment for Scoliosis, The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 1979 pg. 371-374

139 Drummond et al, Radiation Hazards in Scoliosis Management, SPINE Vol 8 number 7 1983 pg. 741- 748

140 Aragona, et al. A.S.B.E. Fellowship Commission on X-ray Safety, Patient Consumer Protection and Standards of Care in Spinal and Dental Diagnostic Roentgenography and Academy Recommendations to develop Equitable Chiropractic Practice Standards of Care Guidelines. The American Academy of Applied Spinal Biomechanical Engineering. pg. 1-120 1992

141 Consensus meeting of A.S.B.E. Fellowship Commission on X-ray Safety, Patient Consumer Protection and Standards of Care. Chicago, Ill. June 25, 1994 In Attendance: J. Augustine, D.C., L.W. Bateman, D.C., C.A. Mueller, D.C., R. Meskill, D.C., T. Spieles, D.C., M. Hudson, D.C., R. Piasio, D.C., R. Aragona, D.C., G. Aragona, D. Borges, D.C.

142 John MacRae, D.C.: Roentgeometrics in Chiropractic. Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College, Toronto 1979 pg 90-104

143 A.S.B.E. Subluxation Study Series 1221, Ronald J. Aragona, Ph.D., F.A.S.B.E. TX1-247-628, U.S. Copyright, The Library Of Congress-- 12.07.83

144 Aragona, R.J.: Vol. I: The Fundamental Principles and Practice of A.S.B.E. TX-1-410-244--6.15.84

145 Aragona, R.J.: Vol. II: Lumbosacral Quantum Biomechanicophysiological Maneuvers TX-45-800--9.24.84

146 Aragona, R.J.: Vol. I: Fundamental Principles and Practice of A.S.B.E. Revised Edition TXU-186-818--2.11.85

147 Aragona, R.J.: Vol. II: The Science of A.S.B.E. Maneuvers For Spinal Reconstructive Care Revised Edition TXU-211-621--9.30.85

148 Aragona, R.J.: Vol. III: Lateral Cervical Quantum Biomechanicophysiologicodynamic Engineering Maneuvers of A.S.B.E. TXU-176-924--11.05.84

149 Aragona, R.J.: Vol. III: Lumbosacral Quantum Maneuvers & Coefficients of Structural Instability, Revised Edition (c) -- 9.24.84

150 Aragona, R.J.: Vol. IV: Lumbosacral Quantum Maneuvers & Coefficients Of Structural Instability Arthropathobiomechanicophysiologically TXU-184-732--1.23.85

151 Aragona, R.J.: A Renaissance In Biophysics: Applied Spinal Biomechanical Engineering TXU-177-434--11.13.84

152 Aragona, R.J.: Vol. V: A.P. Cervical Differential Coefficients, Maneuvers and Quantum Maneuvers of A.S.B.E. TXU-192-618--4.3.85

153 Aragona, R.J.: Vol. VI: Congenital and Developmental Spinal Biomechanics--Spinal Pathobiomechanics: Congenital Vertebral Anomalies and Asymmetrical Contiguous Developmental Defects TXU-202-339--6.24.85

154 Aragona, R.J.: A.S.B.E. II: Instructor's Handbook -- The Science of A.S.B.E. Maneuvers For Spinal Reconstructive Care TXU-215-185--10.28.85

155 Aragona, R.J.: Vol. VII: Efficient Clinical Procedures For Reducing Thoracic Biomechanical Instability Distortion Coefficients of V.S.S. an V.S.C. Part One: TXU-215-087--10.28.85

156 Aragona, R.J.: Approval Introduction Copy--A.S.B.E. Principles and Practice--The Science Of Spinal Remodeling TXU-231-216--3.07.86

157 Aragona, R.J.: Vol. VIII: Biophysical Diagnostic Principles Monitoring Chronic Thoracic Pathobiomechanical Vertebral Subluxation Syndromes TXU-231-607--3.07.86

158 Aragona, R.J.: Vol. IX: Tri-Level Clinical Spinal Biomechanics Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures -l987

159 O. J. Ressel, B.Sc., D.C. Disc Regeneration: Reversibility is possible in Spinal Osteoatrhritis ICA Review of Chiropractic March/April 1989

160 NIOBI-X X-ray reduction literature

161 North American Spine Society SPINE Vol 16 number 18 Oct 1991 pg 1162

162 Journal of the American Medical Association: Motion, Not Immobility Advantages for Healing Synovial Joints Nov 6, 1981

163 American Academy of Clinical A.S.B.E. 1987 A.S.B.E. Research Lab Manchester NH

164 Ameve Abnormal Instantaneous Axis of Rotation in Patients with Neck Pain SPINE 1992 Vol 17 number 7

165 Leibowitz and Conninton Alexander Technique Harper and Perennail 1990

166 American Chiropractic Association/ American Chiropractic College of Radiology and Council on Diagnostic Imaging: Floroscopic Position Statement 6/1991

167 Clinical Practice Guideline: Vertebral Subluxation in Chiropractic Practice

168 Panjabi, MM A hypothesis of chronic back pain: ligament subfailure injuries lead to muscle control dysfunction European Spine Journal 7/27/2005

169 Madeline Behrendt, D.C Benchmarking Chiropractors as Members of the Creative Class: A Consideration of Practice, Play, Professional and Personal lives

170 Campbell, Kent, Banne, Amiri and Pero Surrogate Indication of DNA Repair in Serum After Long Term Chiropractic Intervention

171 Giles et al Chronic Spinal Pain: a randomized clinical trial comparing medication, acupuncture and spinal manipulation: Spine

172 Aure et al Manual Therapy Superior to Exercise: Spine

173 Hawk C, et al Preliminary study of the effects of a placebo chiropractic treatment with sham adjustments

174 Hoving et al Manual Therapy is Superior to, Physical Therapy, or Continued Care by a General Practitioner for Patients with Neck Pain Annuals Internal Medicine

175 Meade TW, et al. Chronic spinal pain using adjustments is superior to hospital outpatient treatment. British Medical Journal

176 Dabbs Chiropractic is safe A risk assessment of cervical manipulation vs. NSAIDs for the treatment of neck pain.J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1995 Oct;18(8):530-6.

177 Oakley Diagnostic X-Ray Risks

178 Haldeman 1 in 5.6 million treatments extremely rare arterial dissections following cervical manipulation: the chiropractic experience. Canadian Medical Association.
CMAJ • October 2, 2001; 165 (7)

179 Thiel, D.C. Safety of Chiropractic Manipulation of the Cervical Spine SPINE 32, Number 21, pp 2375-2378 2007

180 Bronfort Randomized Clinical Trial of Exercise and spinal manipulation for Patients with Chronic Neck Pain Spine 2001;26:788-99

181 Council on Chiropractic Practice Clinical Practice Guideline 2003 Outcome measurements

182 Chou The American College of Physician and the American Pain Society Comprehensive Joint Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Low Back Pain Annals of Internal Medicine. October 2, 2007pgs 478-491

183 Morris, D.C. Low Back Syndromes

184 R S Jemmett Rehabilitation of lumbar multifidus dysfunction in low back pain: strengthening versus a motor re-education model Br J Sports Med 2003;37:91

185 Hides, J. Multififidus muscle recovery is not automatic after resolution of acute first-episode low back pain. Conclusion Spine. 2006;31(25):2926-2933. 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

186 Adams and Hutton, The Relevance of Torsional Injuries to the Mechanical Derangement of the Lumbar Spine, SPINE vol. 6, 1981

187 The Flu: Sorting Fact from Fiction Journal Vertebral Subluxation Research 11/12/2007

188 Overview article citing Rhodes WR "The Official History of Chiropractic in Texas."Texas Chiropractic Association Austin TX 1978

189 Chiropractic Statistics Research review by WCT on the "The Chiropractic Research and Review Service" Burton Shields Press Indianapolis IN 1925

190 Cassidy No increased risk of stroke using chiropractic care Risk of vertebrobasilar stroke and chiropractic care Spine 33 Number 45 2008

191 Bishop, D.C., Ph.D., M.D. Chiropractic Doctors in hospitals Evidence-Based Care That Included Chiropractic Manipulation More Effective Than Usual Medical Treatment

192 James Eloitta, MRI study of the cross-sectional area for the cervical extensor musculature in patient with persistent whiplash Spine 2006

193 Johnson NP Mueller J Updating the account: global mortality of the 1918 - 1920 Spanish influenza pandemic Bull Med 76, 105-115 2002

194 Turner J A PhD Early Predictors of Chronic Work Disability: A Prospective, Population Based Study of Workers with Back SPINE Volume 33, Number 25, pp 2809-2819

195 RS Jemmett Rehabilitation of lumbar multifidus dysfunction in lower back pain. Strengthening versus a motor re-education Br J Sports Med 003;37:91

196 D.R Noll et al Efficacy of manipulation as an adjunctive treatment for hospitalized patients with pneumonia Osteopathic Medicine and Primary Care

197 F Cerritelli, et al Osteopathic manipulation as a complementary treatment for the prevention of cardiac complications Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies (2011)

198 Forward head tilt posture in older men and women have higher mortality rates. Be careful to keep proper posture. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004 Oct;52(10):1662-

199 Ed Taub, Ph.D. Brain Plactisity - The brain can change JAMA, November 1, 2006; 296: 2095 - 2104

200 Paul Bach-Y-Rita Father of Neuroplasticity How does the BrainPort work?

201 Implications are that chronic lower back pain causes non use brain tissue atrophy (shrink). A good reason not to have lower back pain for a long time Manual Therapy 16 (2011) 15-20

202 Gartsang, M.D., Stitik, M.D 2006 American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Osteoarthritis Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Pathophysiology. "the clinical and pathologic outcome of a range of disorders that results in structural and functional failure of synovial joints.

203 Mark Studin DC Evaluate and test until you have reached a conclusive diagnosis The American Chiropractor, Diagnostics , Volume 30, Issue 11 2/25/2009

204 Craig Liebenson, DC The Neurodevelopmental Basis for Spine Stability

205 Weslye Parke professor of Anatomy at the University of South Dakota School of Medicine Impairment of venous return is the primary reason that compressed nerves become pain generators

206 Smith et al Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics Fitt's Law May 2006

207 Panjabi Journal of Biomechanics Coordinate System, Volume 7, Issue 4, August 1974, Pages 385-387

208 Ward, Kim, MD, Gottschalk, Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery Radiology, and Bioengineering , V.A. Medical Center and University of California at San Diego, The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (American). 2009;91:176-185

209 Francesco Cerritelli, MS, DO Osteopathic manipulation as a complementary treatment for the prevention of cardiac complications: 12-Months follow-up of intima media and blood pressure on a cohort affected by hypertension Journal of Bodywork & Movement Therapies (2011) 15, 68e74

210 Randall Predictability and Predictiveness in Health Care Spending Economics Department, Boston University, Harvard University 2006 Journal Health Economics 26 (2007) 25-48

211 ICA Committee's Critique of CCGPP's Diagnostic Imaging Report 5/20/2009

212 Francesca Cecchi Spinal Manipulation is better short and long-term functional improvement, and more pain relief in the follow-up than either back school or individual physiotherapy. Clinical Rehabilitation 2010; 24: 26-36

213 David Cassidy, Ph.D. Testimony online to Connecticut Board of Chiropractic Examiners Jan 22, 2010 Should patients be required to sign an informed consent form before cervical adjustment? Conclusion: No! Because there are no increased risks of problems with chiropractic treatment.

214 Manuel Cifuentes, MD, PhD The use of chiropractor services generally cost less than services from other providers Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: April 2011 - Volume 53 - Issue 4 - p 396-404

215 Liliedahl, MD Paid costs for episodes of care initiated with a DC were almost 40% less than episodes initiated with an MD.Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics Vol 33, Issue 9 Pages 640-643, November 2010

216 Christiansen, Haselhurst, Willens An assisted-walking device for patient with injured nerves Sensastep

217 James M. Elliott , PT, PhD Are There Implications for Morphological Changes in Neck Muscles After Whiplash Injury? SPINE Volume 36, Number 25S, pp S205-S210 2011

218 Balthazard et al. Manual therapy followed by specific active exercises versus a placebo ST followed by specific active exercises: a randomized controlled trial University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland, Switzerland BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2012, 13:162

219 von Heymann WJ Spinal HVLA-Manipulation in Acute Nonspecific LBP: A Double Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial in Comparison With Diclofenac and Placebo. Orthopedic Practice, Bremen University Bremen. Spine 2012 Sep 28

220 Cifuentes et al Health Maintenance Care in Work-Related Low Back Pain and its Association with Disability Recurrence, CONCLUSIONS: In work-related nonspecific LBP, the use of health maintenance Care provided by physical therapist or physician services was associated with a higher disability recurrence than in chiropractic services or no treatment, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2011 53(4) 396-404

221 Legorreta, Department of Health Services, UCLA School of Public Health Comparative analysis of individuals with and without chiropractic coverage: patient characteristics, utilization, and costs. Chiropractic care not only may prove to be clinically beneficial but also may reduce overall health care costs, Archives of Internal Medicine 164(18), 1985-1992

222 Wolfgang J. et al Institute for Biometrics, University of Bremen, Germany, Double blinded, placebo –controlled, parallel trial with 3 arms comparison manipulation with NSIADS and placebo. Patients with acute non-specific lower back pain, spinal manipulation was significantly better than nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and clinically superior to placebo, Spine 4/2013 vol 38, Number 7 pp 540-548 Lippencott Williams and Wilkins

223 Goertz, Christine M. DC, PhD Adding Chiropractic Manipulative Therapy to Standard Medical Care for Patients With Acute Low Back Pain: Results of a Pragmatic Randomized Comparative Effectiveness Study The results of this trial suggest that CMT in conjunction with SMC offers a significant advantage for decreasing pain and improving physical functioning when compared with only standard care, for men and women between 18 and 35 years of age with acute LBP. Spine 4/2013 vol 38 8 pp 627-634 Lippencott Williams and Wilkins

224. Peterson, RN, DC, M.Med.Ed Outcomes From Magnetic Resonance Imaging–Confirmed Symptomatic Cervical Disk Herniation Patients Treated With High-Velocity, Low-Amplitude Spinal Manipulative Therapy: A Prospective Cohort Study With 3-Month Follow-Up Fifty patients were included. At 2 weeks, 55.3% were “improved,” 68.9% at 1 month and 85.7% at 3 months. Statistically significant decreases in neck pain, arm pain, and NDI scores were noted at 1 and 3 months compared with baseline scores (P < .0001). Of the subacute/chronic patients, 76.2% were improved at 3 months. Conclusions Most patients in this study, including subacute/chronic patients, with symptomatic magnetic resonance imaging–confirmed CDH treated with spinal manipulative therapy, reported significant improvement with no adverse events. Spinal Manipulation for Cervical Disk Herniation, JMPT, Vol. 36, No. 8, October 2013, pp. 461-7

225 Benjamin J. Keeney, PhD Early Predictors of Lumbar Spine Surgery After Occupational Back Injury Results From a Prospective Study of Workers in Washington State Approximately 42.7% of workers who first saw a surgeon had surgery, in contrast to only 1.5% of those who saw a chiropractor. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the multivariate model was 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.92–0.95), indicating excellent ability to discriminate between workers who would versus would not have surgery. Spine. 2013;38(11):953-964.

226 Carrick FR. Normal mechanical attitudes could be restored by manipulative reduction of the cervical motion segments. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1983 Sep;6(3):129-37.

227 Patrick A. Sugrue , MD Redefining Global Spinal Balance Normative Values of Cranial Center of Mass From a Prospective Cohort of Asymptomatic Individuals SPINE Volume 38, Number 6, pp 484–489 ©2013, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

228 Weigel PA The comparative effect of episodes of chiropractic and medical treatment on the health of older adults. 2 year study 2014 Mar-Apr;37(3):143-54. doi: 10.1016/j.jmpt.2013.12.009. Epub 2014 Mar 11.

229 Wei W et al Straightened cervical lordosis causes stress concentration: a finite element model study.: The straightening of the cervical spine caused a 24-33% loss of motion and an increase of stress of 5-95%. Australasian Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine 2013 Mar;36(1):27-33. doi: 10.1007/s13246-013-0182-4. Epub 2013 Jan 25.

230 Gert Bronfort, DC, PhD et al For participants with acute and subacute neck pain, spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) was more effective than medication in both the short and long term. Annuals of Internal Medicine 3 January 2012, Vol 156, No. 1

231. Peterson CK, et al Outcomes of pregnant patients with low back pain undergoing chiropractic treatment: a prospective cohort study with short term, medium term and 1 year follow-up. For example, when asked one week into the treatment sessions whether or not the women noticed a reduction in their level of pain, 52 percent said yes. That amount increased to 70 percent one month into treatment, then to 85 percent being happy with the results after just three months of chiropractic care. At the six month mark, 90 percent said that they noticed reduced pain in their back region, and the benefits continued with 88 percent reporting positive effects one year after the initial chiropractic treatment session. Chiropr Man Therap. 2014 Apr 1;22(1):15

232. Kenneth K Hansaraj, MD Chief of Spinal Surgery New Your Spine Surgery Assessment of
Stresses in the. Cervical Spine Caused by Posture and. Position of the Head. The weight seen by the spine dramatically increases when flexing the head forward at varying degrees. Loss of the natural curve of the cervical spine leads to incrementally increased stresses about the cervical spine. 60 degrees neck flexion adds 60 pounds of pressure on neck. These stresses may lead to early wear, tear, degeneration, and possibly surgeries

233.Valter Santilli, MD et al, Chiropractic manipulation in the treatment of acute back pain and sciatica with disc protrusion: a randomized double-blind clinical trial of active and simulated spinal manipulations CONCLUSIONS: Active manipulations have more effect than simulated manipulations on pain relief for acute back pain and sciatica with disc protrusion. The Spine Journal 6 (2006) 131–137 Chiropractic manipulation in the treatment of acute back pain and sciatica with disc protrusion: a randomized double-blind clinical trial of active and simulated spinal manipulations - PubMed (

234 Liliedahl R. Cost of Care for Common Back Pain Conditions Initiated with Chiropractic Doctor vs. Medical Doctor, Patients receive nearly 3 times better results at almost half the cost when consulting a chiropractor Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 33 (9) pgs. 640-643

235 Harvard Health Publications Harvard Medical School Most research on chiropractic has focused on spinal manipulation for back pain. Chiropractic treatment for many other problems—including other musculoskeletal pain, headaches, asthma, carpal tunnel syndrome, and fibromyalgia—has also been studied. A recent review concluded that chiropractic spinal manipulation may be helpful for back pain, migraine, neck pain, and whiplash.

236 McMorland G Manipulation or microdiskectomy for sciatica? A prospective randomized clinical study. Acute and Chronic Herniated Discs Have Significantly Favorable Outcomes With Chiropractic Care 95% Reported Improvement Continual growing body of evidence of treatment of herniated discs via conservative care and specifically with a chiropractic spinal adjustment. It considers herniated discs with radicular or leg pain patients. Patients with symptomatic LDH failing medical management should consider spinal manipulation followed by surgery if warranted. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2010 Oct;33(8):576-84. doi: 10.1016/j.jmpt.2010.08.013.

237 Kovanur Sampath Ket al. New Zealand Measureable changes in the neuro-endocrinal mechanism following spinal manipulation.US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health Med Hypotheses. 2015 Oct 10.

238 January 2017 "The Journal of Nuclear Medicine," researchers assert that exposure to medical radiation does not increase a person's risk of getting cancer. The long-held belief that even low doses of radiation, such as those received in diagnostic imaging, increase cancer risk is based on an inaccurate, 70-year-old hypothesis, according to the authors.

239 May 19 2017 American College of Physicians issued a formal recommendation that doctors include spinal manipulation in the tools they use to treat back pain. The change comes after two new systematic reviews found a visit to the chiropractor can provide improvements for people with low back pain

240 Frequency & Duration of Chiropractic Care for Headaches, Neck and Upper Back Pain J. Maltby, DC Don. Harrison, PhD, DC, MSE Deed Harrison, DC J, Betz, BS, DC J. Ferrantelli, BS, DC5 G. W. Clum, DCJ. Vertebral Subluxation Res. August 21, 2008

241 Program of Care Derived from Pain Dada Reported in RCTs on Lower Back Pain Maltby, DC Don. Harrison, PhD, DC, MSE Deed Harrison, DC J, Betz, BS, DC, J. Ferrantelli, BS, DC, G. W. Clum, DC J. Vertebral Subluxation Res. February 14, 2009 (PDF) Program of Care Derived from Pain Data Reported in RCTs on Low Back Pain (

242 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Agency fro Healthcare Research and Quality Frequency and Duration of Chiropractic Care for Uncomplicated Axial Pain

243 Clinical Practice Guideline: Chiropractic Care for Low Back Pain JMPT 2015; 38 Globe et al

244 Council on Chiropractic Practice Practice Guideline 2013

245 Decreased Vertebral Artery Hemodynamics in Patients with Loss of Cervical Lordosis M. Bulut Medical Science Monitor 2016 Feb 15;22:495-500.

246 Ebell, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics University of Georgia July 13, 2017 How good is evidence to support primary care practice? 18% of recommendations were based on consistent, high quality patient oriented evidense

247 Tan MD Department of Orthopedic Surgery Columbia University Medical Center Cervical Spine Deformity - Part 1: Biomechanics, Radiographic Parameters and Classification Neurosurgery 81:197–203, 4/14/2017

248 Chu Chiropractic Care of Postlaminectomy Syndrome: A Report of 2 Cases International Journal of Medical and Health Science July 2017 Vol 6 Issue 3

249 Gokcen, M.D. A Rare Case of T1-2 Thoracic Disc Herniation Mimicking Cervical Radiculopathy Int J Spine Surgery 2017; 11: 30. Published online 2017 Nov 28. doi: PMCID: PMC5779266

250 Arlene Welch and Ralph Boone  Sympathetic and parasympathetic responses to specific diversified adjustments to chiropractic vertebral subluxations of the cervical and thoracic spine Journal of Chiro Med College

251 Physical Therapy Scope of Practice Honorable Leland Y. Yee California State Capital February 10, 2014

252 Harvard Medical School "... make your first call to a professional who can assess your problem, such as a primary care physician or a chiropractor.  Both can serve as the entry point for back pain...and 35% to 42% of the people with their first episode of back pain will consult a chiropractor." November 2017 Harvard Health Letter

253 Sadler  Restriction in lateral bending range of motion, lumbar lordosis, and hamstring flexibility predicts the development of low back pain: a systematic review of prospective cohort studies BioMed Central Musculoskeletal Disorders May 2017

254 Pelise  The global burden of Adult Spinal Deformity was huge compared with other self-reported chronic conditions: arthritis, chronic lung disease, diabetes and congestive heart failure in the general population of eight industrialized countries. The impact of ASD on HRQL warrants the same research and health policy attention as other important chronic  European Spine Journal 2015 Jan;24(1):3-11

255  Amplified MRI magnifies sub-voxel brain and vascular motion. I Terem, WW Ni, M Goubran, M. Salmani Rahimi, G Zaharchuk, KW Yeom, ME Moseley, M Kurt, SJ 

256 Heidi Haavik, D.C., Ph.D. Rubicon Research Colloquium May 18, 2018 Atlanta Georgia

257 Axén Iben Chiropractic maintenance care - what’s new? A systematic review of the literature 2019

258 Zhongguo Gu Shang. Analysis of the relationship between living habit and cervical instability in adolescent patients with neck pain 2018 Oct 25;31(10):916-921.

259 Adams Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2017 Dec 1;42(23):1810-1816. The Prevalence, Patterns, and Predictors of Chiropractic Use Among US Adults: Results From the 2012 National Health Interview Survey.


261 Neck Pain: Combining Exercise and Manual Therapy for Your Neck and Upper Back Leads to Quicker Reductions in Pain Published: Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 2013 Volume:43 Issue:Pages:128

262 Han C, Rice MW  Neuroinflammatory and autonomic mechanisms in diabetes and hypertension Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Jul 1;311(1):E32-41.

263 Rea Rodriguez-Raecke Structural Brain Changes in Chronic Pain February 6, 2013

264 Drew Brees Sports Science: min 1:21  Who is more accurate hitting a bullseye at 20 yards, pro Quarterback or Olympic archer?

265 Moustafaab, Youssef, Ahboucha Tamina Deed Harrison Is forward head posture relevant to autonomic nervous system function and cervical sensorimotor control? Cross sectional study January 2020
Forward head posture negatively affects cervical sensorimotor control.
Forward head posture negatively affects the autonomic nervous system. 
There is strong correlation between the CVA and cervical sensorimotor outcomes. 
There is strong correlation between the CVA and skin sympathetic outcomes.

266 Carla Cuna The inflammatory response in the regression of lumbar disc herniation  Arthritis Research and Therapy  2018; 20:

267 Herzog. Variability in diagnostic error rates of 10 MRI centers performing lumbar spine MRI examinations on the same patient within a 3-week period. Spine J. 2017 Apr;17(4):554-561. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2016.11.009. Epub 2016 Nov 17.

268 American Association of Physicist in Medicine Policy Number PP 32-A AAPM Position Statement on the Use of Patient Gonadal and Fetal Shielding 4/2/2019 April 2-3, 2019 Board of Directors Meeting Minutes

Patient gonadal and fetal shielding during X-ray based diagnostic imaging should be discontinued as routine practice. Patient shielding may jeopardize the benefits of undergoing radiological imaging. Use of these shields during X-ray based diagnostic imaging may obscure anatomic information or interfere with the automatic exposure control of the imaging system. These effects can compromise the diagnostic efficacy of the exam, or actually result in an increase in the patient’s radiation dose. Because of these risks and the minimal to nonexistent benefit associated with fetal and gonadal shielding, AAPM recommends that the use of such shielding should be discontinued.

269 Dan Murphy 5 minute youtube on 1918 pandemic and chiropractic.

270 James M Weldon, D.C. MS Impact of Chiropractic Care on Use of Prescription Opioids in Patients with Spinal Pain Pain Medicine, pnaa014, Published: 06 March 2020   We employed a retrospective cohort design for analysis of health claims data from three contiguous states for the years 2012–2017. The total number of subjects was 101,221. Patients with spinal pain who saw a chiropractor had half the risk of filling an opioid prescription. Among those who saw a chiropractor within 30 days of diagnosis, the reduction in risk was greater as compared with those with their first visit after the acute phase.

271 Improving the Documentation of Chiropractic Services

min 11:12 and min 12:46

272 Influence of Initial Provider on Health Care Utilization in Patients Seeking Care for Neck Pain Mayo Clinic Procdeeding: Innovation, Quality Outcomes 2017 Dec; 1(3): 226–233.

273  Cataract Surgery May Improve Visual and Cognitive Function in Patients With Dementia Neurology Reviews. 2014 September;22(9):19

274 Plaugher, G, Correlating motion palpation with functional x-ray findings in patients with low back pain. 1998 Mar;7(1):15-9. Australasia Chiropractic Osteopathy College 

275 Studin M., Owens W. (2017) Strain/Sprain Is One Syndrome, Not 2 Separate Pathologies and is Permanent, American Chiropractor 39 (2) 26, 28, 30-31

276 Gonstead Clinical Studies Society: Case Studies, Clinical Trials, History Articles, Instrumentation, Overviews of The Gonstead Technique, Pediatrics and Radiology   Published Research Articles 1972 to 2007

277 Kovanur-Sampath K, Mani R, Cotter J er al. Changes in biochemical markers following spinal manipulation - a systematic review and meta-analysis. Musculoskeletal Science and practice 2017; 29:120-31.

278 Andreas Eklund Chiropractic and Manual Therapies The Nordic maintenance care program: maintenance care reduces the number of days with pain in acute episodes and increases the length of pain free periods for dysfunctional patients with recurrent and persistent low back pain - a secondary analysis of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial April 21 2020

279 Two Impalas.  What frequently happens during major conflicts between any two groups

280 Jack Lalanne at age 95 2009 08 24 Youtube interview 

281 The Patriot Project "Back Bone" youtube

282 Ephraim Church Department of Neurosurgery, Penn State Hershey 2016 Medical Center Cureus 2016 Feb; 8(2): e498. Review of 283 articles Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Chiropractic Care and Cervical Artery Dissection: No Evidence for Causation

283 Ross Houser, M.D. 2020 Cervical Prolo Therapy Neurology of Cervical Instability: Vagus Nerve - Ross Hauser, MD Vagus nerve degeneration webinar - Ross Hauser, MD- Part 2, March 2020 start 1:30, 20:10

284 Alarcos Cieza PhD. 2019 Lancet  Global estimates of the need for rehabilitation based on the Global Burden of Disease study 2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019  Global estimates of the need for rehabilitation based on the Global Burden of Disease study 2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 - The Lancet

285 The 1505 Club Dr. David A. Fowler, DC, Podcast featuring current topics in Chiropractic and the Gonstead technique  ‎The 1505 Club on Apple Podcasts 

286 Jankea Russell  2019 Journal of Medical Cases Improvement in Vagal Function in a Post Breast Cancer Patient Receiving Chiropractic Care: A Case Study Journal of Medical Cases Volume 10, Number 6, June 2019, pages 171-178

287  MCGowan.PhD. 2019 Cost-Efficiency and Effectiveness of Including Doctors of Chiropractic to Offer Treatment Under Medicaid: A Critical Appraisal of Missouri Inclusion of Chiropractic Under Missouri Medicaid  Journal of Chiropractic Humanities December 2019; Vol. 10; No. 26; pp. 31-52 Cost-Efficiency and Effectiveness of Chiropractic for Musculoskeletal Complaints (

288 Weslye Parke Professor of Anatomy South Dakota School of Medicine The significance of venous return impairment in ischemic radiculopathy and myelopathy - PubMed (

289 Hirten RP,  2021 J Med Internet Res Physiological Data from a Wearable Device Identifies SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Symptoms and Predicts COVID-19 Diagnosis: Observational Study J Med Internet Res 2021;23(2):e26107

290 Gonstead "I am pressing his head into my sternum for stabilization" (1) Dr. Gonstead - Lower Cervical Adj - YouTube

291 Lopes, Coleman, Cremata, 2021 Radiography and Clinical Decision-Making in Chiropractic, An International Journal, October-December 2021:11 Gonstead Clinical Studies Society, Santa Cruz, CA, USA Received 10 April 2021; received revised 11 August 2021; accepted 17 August 2021 Radiography and Clinical Decision-Making in Chiropractic - Mark A. Lopes, Roger R. Coleman, Edward J. Cremata, 2021 (

292 Morgan Angotti 2021 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, COVID-19 and its Impact on Back Pain  Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA September 26, 2021  COVID-19 and its Impact on Back Pain - Morgan Angotti, G. Michael Mallow, Arnold Wong, Scott Haldeman, Howard S. An, Dino Samartzis, 2022 (

293 Brian Fung Sept 2012 The Alantic  The $289 Billion Cost of Medication Noncompliance, and What to Do About It

294 Herzog April 2017 Spine Variability in diagnostic error rates of 10 MRI centers performing lumbar spine MRI examinations on the same patient within a 3-week period 

295 California Board of Chiropractic Examiners Title 16 Section 318 

296 Jodi Dodds (Gehring) MD Nov 9, 2014 is not possible to ascertain whether the dissection was already present.   Can chiropractic manipulation cause stroke? - The Stroke Blog

297  Matthew Davis 2021 Aug The Effect of Reduced Access to Chiropractic Care on Medical Service Use for Spine Conditions Among Older Adults The Effect of Reduced Access to Chiropractic Care on Medical Service Use for Spine Conditions Among Older Adults - PubMed (

298  M C Jensen 1994 N Engl J Med Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine in people without back pain. 52% of the asymptomatic subjects had a bulge at at least one level, 27% asymptomatic subjects  percent had a protrusion, and 1% percent asymptomatic subjects had an extrusion. 38% asymptomatic subjects had an abnormality of more than one intervertebral disk.  N Engl J Med . 1994 Jul 14;331(2):69-73. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.go...

299 Nakashima July 01, 2015 Spine: Cervical Disc Protrusion Correlates With the Severity of Cervical Disc Degeneration Mild disc degeneration was very common, including 98.0% of both sexes in their 20s. Cervical Disc Protrusion Correlates With the Severity of Cervical Disc Degeneration: A Cross-Sectional Study of 1211 Relatively Healthy Volunteers - PubMed (

300 W. Brinjikji Department of Radiology April 2015 Mayo Clinic Systematic Literature Review of Imaging Features of Spinal Degeneration in Asymptomatic Populations    2015 Apr; 36(4): 811–816

301 James Whedon 2018 Feb 22 J Altern Complement Med. . doi: 10.1089/acm.2017.0131. Association Between Utilization of Chiropractic Services for Treatment of Low-Back Pain and Use of Prescription Opioids.

302 Whedon February 15, 2022 SPINE: Initial Choice of Spinal Manipulation Reduces Escalation of Care for Chronic Low Back Pain Among Older Medicare Beneficiaries Initial Choice of Spinal Manipulation Reduces Escalation of... : Spine (

303 Cornelius Groenewa February 7, 2022 JAMA Prevalence of Pain Management Techniques Among Adults With Chronic Pain in the United States, 2019 JAMA Netw Open. 2022;5(2):e2146697. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.46697 Prevalence of Pain Management Techniques Among Adults With Chronic Pain in the United States, 2019 - PubMed (

304 Wentian March 2022 European Spine Journal Gut-disc axis: A cause of intervertebral disc degeneration and low back pain?
 Gut-disc axis: A cause of intervertebral disc degeneration and low back pain? | SpringerLink

305 Ding 2016 British Journal of Sports Medicine  "The economic burden of physical inactivity: a systematic review and critical appraisal"  Volume 51/Issue 19/1392  The economic burden of physical inactivity: a systematic review and critical appraisal | British Journal of Sports Medicine (

306  Carlos Gevers-Montoro April 2022  Frontiers in Integrative Neuro Science "Presence of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in Urine Samples of Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain Undergoing Chiropractic Care: Preliminary Findings From a Prospective Cohort Study" Frontiers | Presence of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in Urine Samples of Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain Undergoing Chiropractic Care: Preliminary Findings From a Prospective Cohort Study | Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience

307 Hong Lou Stress  2019 Determined through Heart Rate Variability Predicts Immune Function Stress Determined through Heart Rate Variability Predicts Immune Function - PubMed (

308 Matthew McCoy DC, MPH, Christopher Kent DC, JD, Simon Senzon DC, MA, PhD(C), & Phillip Ebrall BAppsSc (Chiropr), PhD, DC (Hon) Annals of Vertebral Subluxation Research ~ May 12, 2020 ~ Pages 59-62  Our critical evaluation reveals that their conclusion is based on flawed methodology, a grossly incomplete review of the literature, unfounded interpretations of the results of the studies, and bias demonstrated by the authors. It is well established that the nervous system controls and coordinates all functions and systems of the human body including immunity and the immune system. Many in chiropractic consider that this relationship confers salutogenic benefits in people undergoing chiropractic care. The scientific literature reviewed here, while limited, demonstrates a positive, salutogenic effect from chiropractic on the human immune system. A Critical Evaluation of the World Federation of Chiropractic’s Fatally Flawed Review of Immunity & Chiropractic | Vertebral Subluxation Research

309 Nishimura, May 19, 2022 Detection of cognitive decline by spinal posture assessment in health exams of the general older population Scientific Reports The recent increase in the older adult population has led to a higher prevalence of cognitive impairment, which is often overlooked in routine health examinations. Detection of cognitive decline by spinal posture assessment in health exams of the general older population - PMC (

310 Jeffery Cooley 2022 Aug 29  Spinal Degeneration is associated with lumbar multifidus morphology in secondary care patients with low back or leg pain Spinal degeneration is associated with lumbar multifidus morphology in secondary care patients with low back or leg pain - PubMed (

311 Bolette 2023 Chiropractic and Manual Therapies Multimorbidity in patients with low back pain in Danish chiropractic practice: a cohort study People with multimorbidity, defined as the co-existence of two or more chronic conditions in an individual, often suffer from pain and functional limitations caused by musculoskeletal disorders and the chronic conditions.   https://chiromt.biomedcentral....

312 David Seaman: Chemistry of Discogenenic and Disc Herniation Pain  Anabolic Laboratories

313 Deed Harrison, D.C., CBP NonProfit, Inc. Special Issue "Spine Rehabilitation in 2022 and Beyond"  A collection of 10 publications on reliable and predictable means through application of structural rehabilitation of the spine and posture as part of comprehensive rehabilitation programs to restore the natural curvatures of the spine

314 Matthew Davis 2021 Journal Manipulative Physio Therapeutics The Effect of Reduced Access to Chiropractic Care on Medical Service Use for Spine Conditions Among Older Adults https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.go... 

315 Gordon C S Smith, professor and Jill P Pell Parachute use to prevent death and major trauma related to gravitational challenge: systematic review of randomised controlled trials   BMJ. Dec 20, 2003; 327(7429): 1459–1461. doi: 10.1136/bmj.327.7429.1459

PMCID: PMC300808

316  Eric Plasker, D.C. “The 100 year Lifestyle”   Patrick Boyle, Senior Staff Writer


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